By Bernd Kortmann

With greater than a hundred unique contributions authored by means of broadly acclaimed experts within the box, this two-volume instruction manual is by way of a ways the main finished reference paintings on phonology and the first-ever entire review of the morphology and syntax of types of English on the planet. It covers all major nationwide general types, specific neighborhood, ethnic, and social kinds, significant touch types, in addition to significant ESL forms. The contributions are descriptive survey articles with a standard middle, which makes the instruction manual valuable from cross-dialectal and cross-linguistic views. The contributions offer info at the historic and cultural backgrounds in addition to the present sociolinguistic occasions, and supply state of the art experiences on significant matters in present study. The guide is followed by way of a CD-ROM delivering new sound fabric for every type in addition to interactive maps. it's also entire bibliographies and hyperlinks to correct web pages. jointly, the instruction manual and the CD-ROM are an crucial reference paintings and learn device for sociolinguists, dialectologists, phonologists, grammarians, typologists, and experts in touch languages and sorts of English all over the world. Given its available variety and its wealthy auditory and visible aid, this guide can also be perfect for undergraduate and starting graduate scholars. The editors are accountable for the subsequent themes: * Kate Burridge/ Bernd Kortmann: Australia / Pacific Archipelagos * Bernd Kortmann: British Isles: Morphology and Syntax * Rajend Mesthrie: Africa / South and Southeast Asia * Edgar W. Schneider: The Americas / Caribbean * Clive Upton: British Isles: Phonology

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1993 Real English. The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles. London/ New York: Longman. ) 1962–1971 Survey of English Dialects: The Basic Material. 4 vols. J. Arnold. English spoken in Orkney and Shetland: phonology Gunnel Melchers 1. General background Orkney and Shetland, known as “the Northern Isles”, are indeed the most northerly units of land in the British Isles. The lighthouse of Muckle Flugga, at a latitude of 61º, is the northernmost point of Shetland as well as of the whole of Britain, and Orkney is as far north as Bristol Bay in Alaska.

Melchers, other volume). e. Orcadian and ‘Shetlandic’, based on data from LSS and considering Catford’s preliminary analyses of vowel systems, can be extracted from Paul Johnston’s chapter on regional variation for the Edinburgh History of the Scots Language (Johnston 1997). A. thesis submitted at the University of Bergen, claiming to be “based on the London School of phonology”, but not making use of the Wells lexical sets. An interesting source of information is John Tait’s article on Shetland vowels (Tait 2000).

1999 Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold. Francis, W. Nelson 1958 The Structure of American English. New York: Ronald Press. Frazer, Timothy C. ) 1993 ‘Heartland’ English: Variation and Transition in the American Midwest. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. ) 1989 English across Cultures, Cultures across English: A Reader in Cross-Cultural Communication. ) Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter. ) 1987 Pidgin and Creole Languages: Essays in Memory of John E. Reinecke.

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