By R. Jankowski

Participants have little incentive to vote, collect political details or give a contribution crusade money, simply because their vote has little or no probability of affecting the result of an election. Jankowski deals an evidence and facts for political participation in response to the truth that most people are weakly altruistic.

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Extra resources for Altruism and Self-Interest in Democracies: Individual Participation in Government

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1992) and Cain (1978) present evidence Why Vote? 35 that voters engage in strategic voting, that is, when their most-preferred candidate has little chance of winning, they vote for their secondmost preferred candidate. Neither civic duty nor expressive voting can explain strategic voting because strategic voting is instrumental. The reason one shifts from one’s most preferred candidate to one’s secondmost preferred candidate is because it maximizes one’s expected benefit in terms of policies. Thus, it is the expected benefits from the voting outcome, and not some sense of duty or expressive benefits, that drives one’s choice.

At this juncture in time, there is no theoretical model of intrinsic political interest (Prior, 2010). For example, it is not based on a psychological attachment to individuals or parties, as in the case of expressive behavior.

Since both of these conditions hold, a fixed-point exists. Note that one of the strategies may be a mixed-Bayesian strategy. Characterizing the Equilibrium Showing that an equilibrium exists is only a first step in the analysis of the contribution game. We want to characterize this equilibrium. 1). The equilibrium, besides existing, has three characteristics: it is symmetric, it is a Why Vote? 39 mixed-strategy equilibrium, and it is unique. A game is symmetric if all players of the same type adopt the same strategy.

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