By P. Lacomme, J.C. Marchais, J.P. Hardange, E. Normant

This new useful name offers a accomplished account of the present country of the most varieties of airborne and spaceborne radar platforms. each one approach is roofed by way of the elemental radar ideas, features and homes, in addition to the radar's position in the total approach and project. Given altering operational necessities, the authors additionally think of how radar may possibly evolve into the longer term. The ebook advantages drastically from the original wisdom of the writer group, who're operating in a firm thought of to be a middle of excellence for advertisement radar improvement.

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Extra info for Air and Spaceborne Radar Systems: An Introduction (Radar, Sonar, Navigation and Avionics)

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3 The Role of the Troposphere The troposphere is the lower, non-ionized part of the atmosphere in which aircraft travel. It acts as a refractive medium. 1 Normal Propagation The atmosphere is characterized by a refractive index, n, that is close to one but varies with air density, and thus with temperature and altitude. 25 , = dh RT where RT is the earth’s radius. The principle of refraction is well known in optics. The angle of incidence i Q  ⋅ VLQ U , and the angle of refraction r are linked by the equation Q  ⋅ VLQ L where n1 and n2 are indexes of the mediums 1 and 2.

Seen from the receiver R, the reflected wave appears to come from a fictitious point known as the image, symmetrical to the actual source S in relation to the plane P. The ratio between the reflected field ( U and the incident field ( L gives the reflection coefficient ρ of the plane. 1 Ground Reflection The fact that radar waves share the same reflection properties explains the double sphere phenomenon (see Chapter 3) between the target, T, and its image, I. This phenomenon is all the more noticeable when target, T or receiver R are close to ground level.

This is the case for a complex target illuminated with frequency agility. Swerling Model III The target fluctuates in accordance with the function σ 4σ −2 p(σ ) = 2 e σ σ with decorrelation from one scan to the next (the case of a target with a single dominant scatterer). Swerling Model IV Target fluctuation is the same as in Model III but with decorrelation from pulse to pulse. 6 shows real aircraft RCS measurements in S band. 5 Mathematical Modeling of the Received Signal The power of the received signal is not sufficient to define the optimal processing required for its detection, and we must determine the mathematical expression of this signal.

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