By Alan Gladwell
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Additional resources for Advances in Physics
Would you expect a metal to have more or less conductivity than a semiconductor? Why? 2. How can the stress-strain graph for a metal be explained in terms of ions in a sea of electrons? 3. As a metal heats up, what happens to its conductivity? Why? Polymers A simple polymer consists of a long chain of monomers (components of molecules) joined by covalent bonds. A polymer usually consists of many of these bonds, tangled up. This is known as a bulk polymer. Types A bulk polymer may contain two types of regions.
The sum of the potential differences across all the components is equal to the potential difference (but batteries have their own 'internal resistances', which complicates things slightly, as we will see). Parallel Circuits In a parallel circuit, the potential difference across each branch of the circuit is equal to the EMF, as the same force is pushing along each path of the circuit. The number of charge carriers (current) differs, but the force pushing them (voltage) does not. Questions 1. A battery has an EMF of 5V.
How much current is flowing through the light bulb? 2. How much energy is dissipated by a 10W component in 1 hour? 3. 5 A. 2 kJ of energy is required to heat a litre of water to 100°C. Assuming 100% efficiency, how long does it take to boil 1 litre of water? 4. How much energy is dissipated by a 100Ω resistor in 10 seconds if 2A of current are flowing? 5. 6 x 10-19 C. How long does it take for a mole (6 x 1023 particles) of electrons to flow through a 40W light bulb on a 240V ring main? Resistance and Conductance Conductance is a measure of how well an artefact (such as an electrical component, not a material, such as iron) carries an electric current.