By V S Letokhov, Pierre Meystre

The delivery of quantum electronics in the course of the 20 th century and the subsquent discovery of the laser resulted in new developments in physics and a few photonic technolgies. This quantity is devoted to Peter Franken, a pioneer of nonlinear optics, and contains papers via the founders of quantum electronics, Aleksandr Prokhorov, Nicolaas Blombergen, and Norman Ramsey. the themes lined diversity from astronomy to nuclear and semiconductor physics, and from basic difficulties in quantum mechanics to functions in novel laser fabrics and nanoscience.

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The interaction between nucleus and electron shell responsible for the width re(nl) is (3) where rp is the proton radius vector, r is the electron radius vector, e is the angle between directions rp and r. It is taken into consideration that r » rp' For the allowed electric dipole (EI) transitions -+ ao only one term K = 1 of the expansion (3) is of interest. As a result for El transition is determined by the following equation. £,. ') mean reduced matrix elements or radial integrals ; the U angular part of the matrix element is omitted.

Field and S . E. Harri s, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 66, 1 1 54 ( 1 99 1 ) . O. A. Kocharovskaya and Y. I. Khanin, Pis 'rna Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. , 48, 5 8 1 ( 1 988). O. A. Kocharovskaya and Y. 1. Khanin, JETP Lett, 48, 630 ( 1 9 88). E. S . Fry et ai. , Phys. Rev. Lett. , 70, 3 23 5 ( 1 993). O. Kocharovskaya and P. Mandel, Phys. Rev. , A 4 2 , 523 ( 1 990). O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel and Y. V. Radeonychev, Phys. Rev. A 45, 1 997 ( 1 992) . M . O . Scully. S . -Y. Zhu and A . Gavrielides, Phys. Rev.

That is, one arrives at the conclusion that, in the present system, index enhancement without accompanying fast spontaneous emission is achievable. On the other it is clear that the decay rate Y2 �b cannot be arbitrarily small. In the case of vanishing Yz- >b ' there is no dipole moment between the stales 12) and Ib). In order to estimate the lower limit for Y2�b ' the realistic case is considercd when the transitions are not only broadened. Then one has YI�b Ylb = -2 + Ylb,nrd , Y2�b Y2 b = -- + Y2b,nrd , 2 (38) QUANTUM INTERFERENCE EFFECTS IN DC-FIELD COUPLED SYSTEMS 37 where Ylb,nrd and i'2b,nrd are the non-radiative decay rates for the two transitions.