By Peter W. Hawkes

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The sequence positive factors prolonged articles at the physics of electron units (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at low and high energies, microlithography, snapshot technology and electronic snapshot processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing tools utilized in most of these domain names.

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Pp. 43-149. Berlin/New York: Springer-Vedag. Ruska, E. (1979). Die friihe Entwicklung der Elektronenlinsen und der Elektronenmikroskopie. Acta Hist. Leopoldina (12), 1-136. Ruska, E. (1980). The Early Development of Electron Lenses and Electron Microscopy. Translated by T. Mulvey. Stuttgart: Hirzel. Saxton, W. O. (1994). Tilt-shift analysis for TEM auto-adjustment: a better solution to the datafitting problem. J. -Assist. Microsc. 6, 61-76. Saxton, W. O. (1995a). Observation of lens aberrations for very high resolution electron microscopy.

Aberrations, in Handbook of Charged Particle Optics, edited by J. Orloff. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 223-274. Hawkes, P. W. (1997). Electron microscopy and analysis: the first 100 years, in Proceedings of EMAG 1997, edited by J. M. Rodenburg. Bristol, UK/Philadelphia: Inst. , pp. 1-8. Hawkes, P. W. (forthcoming). A unified image algebraic representation of electron image formation and processing in TEM and in STEM. Hawkes, P. , and Kasper, E. (1989). Principles of Electron Optics, Vols. 1, 2.

In the one-dimensional case, the array might represent an energy-loss spectrum, for example. In two dimensions, the array might represent a blackand-white image, binary or with gray levels. In three dimensions, it could be a spectrum-image. The next degree of complexity is the multivalued image. Such an image would be generated by an SEM with several detectors, for example, each detector recording information from the same pixel simultaneously. Another obvious example is a color image, the three basic colors corresponding to the three levels of a three-valued image.

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