By Benjamin Bederson (ed.), Herbert Walther (ed.)

This sequence, validated in 1965, is anxious with contemporary advancements within the normal quarter of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. the sphere is in a kingdom of swift development, as new experimental and theoretical strategies are used on many aged and new difficulties. subject matters lined additionally comprise comparable utilized parts, corresponding to atmospheric technological know-how, astrophysics, floor physics, and laser physics.

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Introduction Wave-particle duality means that a quantum object can exhibit either wave or particle properties, depending on the experimental situation. The wave nature gives rise to interference phenomena, whereas knowledge about the path taken by the object testifies to its particle nature. The crucial point is that it is impossible to observe wave and particle properties simultaneously. OW hy Academic Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. (K) 30 Stephan Durr and Gerhard Rempe searched for ways around it.

Even in the recent experiment of Gisin et al. , 1998), it existed for only 30 microseconds. Because the 199Hgatoms travel relatively slowly compared to the speed of light, the two atom entangled state must continue to exist at large spatial separations for approximately a millisecond in our initial experiment (and for tens of milliseconds in later experiments). This is an increase of several orders of magnitude in the time scale for an entangled state lifetime. ( 3 ) Fermion versus boson. The photon is a boson; a 199Hgatom is a fermion.

For first-order Bragg reflection, the transverse distance is determined by the separation time tsep and the recoil velocity v,, = tik/m. This scheme is similar to a double-slit experiment with slit separation d. This analogy suggests a fringe period of Ap = h/d in momentum space. In the following two subsections, we will discuss the validity of this naive expectation. C. A. PLANE WAVETHEORY With the results of the preceding section, the shape of the fringe pattern can be calculated. 5. Scheme of the atom interferometer.

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