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7 × 10−25 3 IH 4 E∗ 2 cm3 where IH is the ionization energy of hydrogen and E∗ the energy of the first excited level of the incoming projectile. 5 IH I − El,u 2 with I the ionization energy of the emitting atom. • Resonance broadening. Resonance broadening or coupling broadening occurs as a result of the exchange of excitation energy between excited and nonexcited atoms of the same element and causes a decrease of the lifetime of both states and so a line broadening of the spectral lines. The line profile is a Lorentz function.

E. all transitions finishing in the K shell, belong to the so-called K series. Analogously all transitions, arising due to the filling of a L shell vacancy, belong to the L series, etc. If an orbital contains more than one subshell a differentiation with respect to the exact localization of the initial vacancy can be made. All transitions formed by the filling of an inner-shell vacancy in the otherwise neutral atom are called diagram lines. X-ray satellites. Beside the diagram lines, transition lines with strongly reduced intensity exist, the socalled X-ray satellite lines.

The reason of interaction broadening is the finite interaction time between the light passing an atom or molecule and the passed object. The intensity broadening is connected with the increasing of the transition rate between individual levels in a field of light. A more detailed description of these broadening processes can be found in [324] or [57]. Voigt Profile Although most of the considered broadenings lead to a Lorentz line profile the intensity profile of measured transition lines results from a mathematical convolution of Gauss and Lorentz functions because all transition lines at first have a Gauss distribution caused by the Doppler effect.

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